ways to prevent Alzheimer's Disease

Preventing Alzheimer’s

Can we prevent Alzheimer’s disease?

Just as there is no cure, no magic bullet exists to prevent Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, there is compelling evidence that we can do certain things to delay the onset of the disease and even slow its progression. If we follow enough of this advice, perhaps we can avoid it altogether.
It is becoming evident that lifestyle plays a big role in many diseases. What we eat, where we live, what we do with our leisure time: all of these are now known to play a very significant role in how likely we are to get cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other of our most feared diseases. The same is true of for preventing Alzheimer’s. Our genetics may be a big factor in whether or not we will eventually be affected by it, but our lifestyle and other environmental factors, factors we can control, are also potential contributors. There is less evidence in the professional literature that these steps will prevent dementia, but environment and lifestyle are probably to some degree causal factors in almost all forms of dementia.

Read more about what we might do to prevent Alzheimer’s.

Eat Healthy

Eat local and healthy to help prevent Alzheimer'sObviously, right? More and more, diet is understood to be the most important element in everything health related. To optimize good health and minimize bad health we look first to our diet. And a diet that will most likely keep Alzheimer’s away is, essentially, the same as the one that will keep your heart healthy, your cholesterol level down, cancer at bay, and your glucose levels in balance.

General dietary recommendations to improve anyone’s health:

  • Water – Any healthy diet should begin with pure and clean water. Tap water often (usually?) contains undesirable elements and bottled water is unregulated and usually bottled in plastic. Filtering your own water is probably a better option. Water filters are available in a broad price range – and range of effectiveness. A cheap water filter is probably not much better than no water filter. Buy the best one you feel you can afford, and if you have a favorite, please let us know.
  • Whole Foods – Processed foods, like white sugar and flour, are responsible for many health problems. Eat whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables whenever possible. There is a raging debate about organic vs. “conventionally grown food. In our view, organic is best, since these foods will not contain pesticides and other chemicals often found in food, and are more nutritious.
  • Minimally Processed Foods – In general, the more processing a food undergoes, the more that is added to it or taken out of it, the less healthy it will be. Look particularly for sugars (sugar, sucrose, glucose, fructose, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup), hydrogenated and partially-hydrogenated oils, and ingredients you’re not sure how to pronounce. Also minimize or eliminate junk food including fast foods. Even the “healthy” food at fast food restaurants is not all that healthy. It is nearly impossible to eliminate all processing, all junk, but the less of this stuff we eat, the healthier we will all be.
  • Vitamins and Supplements – Dietary supplements are unnecessary if you maintain a good diet. Of course, but that is one big “IF.” A good diet, a proper diet, is almost impossible given the food supply chain with which we have to contend. If you choose to supplement your diet, look for natural ingredients, and steer clear of inexpensive products. Bargain supplements is one of those instances in which cheaper is more expensive.
  • Avoid Practices and Substances that Rob Nutrients
    • Stress – physical, emotional, mental
    • Rich and fatty foods
    • Refined foods
    • Intoxicants, including caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco
    • Chemical additives

    And remember what your mother told you; don’t hurry and chew your food well. Don’t overeat or eat late at night.

  • Eat Locally –Whenever possible, eat foods that were grown or produced in your geographical region. Better yet, grow your own! There are real health as well as economic benefits to doing this.
  • Avoid Aluminum –Although there is no proven connection, it has long been suspected that aluminum might contribute to Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Avoid GMOs and Genetically Modified Foods –There is not much evidence available one way or another on the health effects of “frankenfood”, but historically, every time a certain food is modified from its original, natural state, it seems eventually to be found to contribute to cancer, diabetes, or other diseases. This recommendation is still somewhat subjective, but there is a fast-growing group of scientists, health and food experts, and people concerned about their health that are advising caution in the use of these foods. As we see it, it’s one of those, “until we know more, why take a chance?” situations, or let’s see proof (absolute) that the modified foods are safe, not accept and eat them until we have proof that they are not!

 

In addition, there are several specific dietary recommendations for Alzheimer’s prevention:

  • Antioxidants — Get as much of this as you can by eating fresh, whole vegetables and fruits, and from quality juices. Antioxidant supplements should behow to prevent Alzheimer's disease from natural sources.
  • Cold Water Fish and Fish Oil — Recommended are cod, salmon and flounder. Larger fish at the top of the food chain, like shark, swordfish, and even tuna tend to have higher levels of mercury, so eat those very sparingly.
  • Folate — A water soluble B Vitamin, folate occurs naturally in micro-algae, sprouts, lettuce and leafy vegetables, asparagus, whole wheat, legumes and nuts, melons, strawberries, as well as in other fruits and vegetables. Folic acid, the synthetic form of folate, is used to fortify breads and cereals.
  • Green Tea and Black Tea — Both are high in antioxidants and contain a compound, EGCG, shown to decrease production of the protein responsible for forming the plaques seen in the brain of people with Alzheimer’s. Studies used doses far higher than what you would get in a cup of brewed tea. EGCG is also thought to prevent some forms of cancer, so unless you really don’t like tea you should keep plenty of these varieties around.
  • Mediterranean Diet — The typical diet from most areas around the Mediterranean sea contain an abundance of the ingredients and foods listed above. And a little red wine. A review of a dozen studies that investigated the effects of the Mediterranean diet found health benefits including a 13% reduction in Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Turmeric — A growing body of evidence links turmeric, one of the main spices in curry, to a lower incidence of dementia. There are also laboratory studies that show curcumin, an ingredient in turmeric, blocks the formation of the Amyloid plaques that are so closely associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Incidentally, fresh turmeric is becoming increasingly available in many grocery stores. Furthermore, it adds a nice flavor to many foods. It could be just the thing for taste buds that are not as sensitive as they once were. Read more about the health benefits of turmeric.
  • Apple Juice — Recent evidence has found that apple juice improves cognition and can delay the onset of, and may even work to preventAlzheimer’s disease.
Coconut oil might help prevent alzheimer's

Coconut Oil has received a lot of recent attention for its health benefits, including brain health.

  • Coconut Oil — Here’s another food that is beginning to get a lot of attention for its health benefits in general, and its effect on the brain specifically. Be a little skeptical about what is being said about this oil that was, until recently, thought to be very unhealthy. Now it is considered by some to be the healthiest oil we can use and the only oil we should cook with. There are some people who claim that a spoonful of coconut oil a day has turned around the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, that people with advanced Alzheimer’s seem to be getting better! You can find testimonials, even some in video form, on the internet. Again, be wary, but a spoonful of the stuff each day isn’t going to hurt. Please contact me if you have any information about this, first hand or otherwise, as I am just beginning my research.

Exercise Your Body

Another no-brainer! Diet and Exercise. The mantra of the fit generation. Diet and exercise may be our strongest defense against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. And it does not matter when you start. That is, whenever you start exercising and eating right you will begin preventing Alzheimer’s, or at least you’ll begin decreasing your chances of getting it. So start today.

exercise to prevent Alzheimer's DiseaseA report from The Mayo Clinic that summarizes several recent studies concludes that exercise might be our best bet to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Don’t forget to protect your body while getting it into shape. Head trauma can eventually lead to a form of dementia. Broken bones and bruises are no fun either. Wear a helmet while cycling, rollerblading, skiing, or doing any other activity that could risk head injuries.

SHOP EXERCISE AND FITNESS

Exercise Your Brain

The Einstein Aging Study, reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, concluded that participation in leisure activities led to a lower incidence of all types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s. For this study, leisure activities were reading, writing for pleasure, playing board or card games, playing musical instruments, and participating in group discussions. Subjects who participated in social activities one day each week had a 7% reduction in dementia risk. The risk was further reduced with increased social activity, to 63% for people who participated 11 times per week! The exclamation point is mine. You don’t often see exclamation points in scholarly writings, but I think this finding certainly rates one!!

The Einstein Study is part of a growing body of evidence that a brain workout will improve brain functioning in the same way that a physical workout will improve muscle and cardiovascular functioning. Memory loss, one of the best known and most feared signs of aging, can be reversed or at least slowed by playing a musical instrument, working crossword and Sudoku puzzles, playing chess, and otherwise using and “stretching” our brain.

The connection between mental calisthenics and reduced dementia is not proven, but there is a good amount of indirect and inferential evidence that this is indeed the case. For example, higher levels of education and more mentally demanding occupations correspond to lower levels of dementia.

Even if you did not go to college, or your occupation was not so demanding intellectually, don’t despair; it’s not the level of education or the occupation per se that is responsible for the brain health. You could have dropped out of high school and worked 45 years digging ditches, and spent all your free time at museums and reading and otherwise exercising your curiosity. Education is education. Brain stimulation is what we are after no matter what the guise. If this is you, you might be better off: Digging ditches is physical exercise, and that counts for a lot, too(see above).

And if you have not done those things that keep your brain sharp, start now. An industry is growing up around baby boomers fear of aging and the impending Alzheimer’s epidemic. Inspired by findings like those above, several companies, including Nintendo, are marketing devices designed to exercise our gray matter. But you do not need to spend a lot of money for gadgets or software. A book of puzzles, an interesting discussion, a thought provoking book, and interesting discussion about a thought provoking book; these things, too, benefit your brain.

SHOP ACTIVITY BOOKS

Socialize Often

Socializing is a Key to Preventing Alzheimer's DiseaseAnd speaking of discussion, spending time with friends, staying socially connected, will help to improve your memory and keep the brain elastic and healthy. The connection between social interaction and lowered rates of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia has not yet been made conclusively. Certainty is a difficult thing in cases such as this, but that there is benefit in spending time with friends is irrefutable.

There is a common thread that runs through the suggestions and prescriptions above. All, or almost all, revert to lifestyles and practices that were more prevalent at some time in our past; they propound a simpler, more natural lifestyle. We are all exposed to increasing amounts of environmental contaminants and pollutants. Furthermore, our televisions and computers have taken the place of the after-dinner discussions, the quilting bees, the barn raisings…. In short, the activities that served to further our neighborhoods and society, those activities that also served as our entertainment, made us a much more social being. Many, if not most of those are gone. It is the price we pay for living in an industrial society; we pay, unfortunately, with our health.

The fact that the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is increasing dramatically, as is the incidence of most other health problems, reinforces our position that a return to a simpler, more natural lifestyle is a very good thing. We cannot know, but I would bet there is a direct correlation between environmental stress and Alzheimer’s disease. A return to a simpler lifestyle is not an easy thing to do, but it is certainly a worthwhile thing to attempt.


In The News

[dropcap]A[/dropcap]longitudinal study reported in Neurology, in 2007 and known as The Rotterdam Study, followed almost 7000 people 55 years of age or older over a seven year period. The study shows a significant relationship between current smoking and Alzheimer’s disease and dementia when compared to “never smokers”.

There was also no association between past smoking and dementia, Alzheimer’s, or Vascular dementia (VaD). One more excellent reason to quit now!

Another longitudinal study conducted by a group in Seattle, Washington, watched a group of people over the age of 65 for a period of more than 9 years. They concluded that people who exercised three or more times a week reduced their risk of developing dementia more than those who exercised fewer than three times a week. Also according to this study, “Exercise seemed to be associated with the greatest risk reduction in participants who had poor physical functioning at baseline.” So it’s never too late to start. As long as you start now!

Some more good news! There seems to be a growing amount of evidence that something in red wine might delay or even prevent Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Jun Wang, et. al., reporting in The FASEB Journal (the journal of The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) found that Cabernet Sauvignon both improve memory and cognitive performance in subjects with AD-type amyloid beta-protein (Aß) neuropathology (the plaques part of plaques and tangles). The same study also found that the wine also reduced plaques in the brains of the subjects.

Before we get too excited, the subjects in this particular study were mice. On the other hand, there is a significant amount of evidence in the scientific and anecdotal literature to support the conclusion that wine, particularly red wine, is, in fact, good in ways other than Alzheimer’s prevention. And studies involving mice often relate well to humans.

The authors of this experiment do not advocate excessive consumption of wine, nor do we. Over-consumption and alcoholism can cause dementia and a host of other health problems, as well. Recommended quantities always are in the range of one wine glass size glass per day for women, and two for men (sorry ladies), Another of the conclusions: other forms of alcoholic beverages do not seem to have the same healthy properties, so no substitutions, please.

Alternative therapies for Alzheimer's and dementia

Olfactory Stimulation for Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Certain smells stir deep seated memories, and anything that has the power to channel reminiscences should be part of the daily life of all people with dementia

Tree bark - tactile stimulation for Alzheimer's disease

Tactile Stimulation for Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Anything touched and anything that touches us can be stimulating

Gustatory Stimulation for Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Gustatory Stimulation for Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Taste is very closely aligned with smell and can lead to reminiscences. A favorite meal or a particular dish one has not had for a long time often triggers a flood of recollections.

Elderly couple washing dishes.

Activities of Daily Living for Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

Activities of Daily Living are those things we all need to do on a regular basis to ensure our health and well-being. We take them for granted–until we cannot do them anymore. Unfortunately, dementia makes these tasks more and more difficult. There are aids to help.

Music therapy for Alzheimers and demantia

Auditory stimulation

Auditory stimulation for people with Alzheimer’s and dementia is effective for mood enhancement, relaxation, and cognition; just as it is for everyone else.

activities are the key to quality of life

Activities for Dementia: the Key to Quality of Life

Recreational activities play an important role when it comes to defining our own Quality of Life. Each of us chooses activities based on our interests and abilities. People who have dementia need  access to recreational activities, too; this is as much a moral imperative as it is an issue of care and disease management.

Alzheimer’s Research

 


Alzheimer’s Research

 

Sometimes research papers can be downloaded for free. Other times these links take you to an abstract of the cited article where the full article can be purchased, or sometimes membership to a site allows access to the article.


 

Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Statistics

2008 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures

A statistical abstract of U.S. data on Alzheimer’s disease

published by the Alzheimer’s Association

 

Statistics: Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias

A Fact Sheet

Published By the Alzheimer Society of Canada

 


Stages and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

Treatment of sleep disturbance in Alzheimer’s disease

 

Susan M. McCurryb, Charles F. Reynolds, Sonia Ancoli-Israeld, Linda Terib, and Michael V. Vitiello

Sleep Medicine Reviews Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2000, Pages 603-628

 


Activities for People with Alzheimer’s Disease

“I Know What I Like”: Stability of aesthetic preference in alzheimer’s patients

Andrea R. Halperna, Jenny Lyb, Seth Elkin-Frankstonb and Margaret G. O’Connor
Psychology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, USA

Brain and Cognition,Volume 66, Issue 1, February 2008

 

The Pablo Picasso Alzheimer’s Therapy

By RANDY KENNEDY

The New York Times; October 30, 2005

 

Art Awakens Alzheimer’s Patients’ Minds

Bill Blakemore

ABC News; July 2, 2006

 

Age-or stage-appropriate? Recreation and the relevance of Piaget’s theory in dementia care

Alison E. J. Mahoney

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2003; 18; 24

 

Bingo vs. physical intervention in stimulating short-term cognition in Alzheimer’s disease patients

Benjamin P. Sobel

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2001; 16; 115

 

Memories in the Making&#169: Outcome-based evaluation of an art program for individuals with dementing illnesses

Clarissa A. Rentz

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2002; 17; 175

 

Physical activity and behaviour in dementia: A review of the literature and implications for psychosocial intervention in primary care

Laura H.P. Eggermont and Erik J.A. Scherder

Dementia 2006; 5; 411

 

The use of Piaget’s theory in Alzheimer’s disease

Julia McGregor Thornbury

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 1993; 8; 16

 

Experts prescribe children’s toys for Alzheimer’s patients

Rebecca Rosenberg

Columbia News Service

 

Dolls ‘help Alzheimer’s patients’

BBC News|Health, July 8, 2006

 

A randomised pilot study to assess the efficacy of an interactive, multimedia tool of cognitive stimulation in Alzheimer’s disease

L T&#225rraga, M Boada, G Modinos, A Espinosa, S Diego, A Morera, M Guitart, J Balcells, O L L&#243pez and J T Becker

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 2006;77;1116-1121;

 

Sensory Stimulation

Sensory stimulation in dementia: An effective option for managing behavioural problems

Alistair Burns, Jane Byrne, Clive Ballard,Clive Holmes.

BMJ 2002;325(7376):1312 (7 December), doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7376.1312

 

Light Therapy and Alzheimer’s Disease

by Mariana Gross Figueiro, MSc, Mark S. Rea, PhD; and Gregory Eggleston

Sleep Review – January-February 2003

 

Light therapy ‘can slow dementia’

BBC News, Tuesday, 10 June 2008

 

Effect of Bright Light and Melatonin on Cognitive and Noncognitive Function in Elderly Residents of Group Care Facilities

Rixt F. Riemersma-van der Lek, MD; Dick F. Swaab, MD, PhD; Jos Twisk, PhD; Elly M. Hol, PhD; Witte J. G. Hoogendijk, MD, PhD; Eus J. W. Van Someren, PhD

JAMA Vol. 299 No. 22, June 11, 2008

 

Effect of light therapy upon disturbed behaviors in Alzheimer patients

Yvette L. Rheaume, BSN, RN; Barbara C. Manning, MEd; David G. Harper, MS; Ladislav Volicer, MD, PhD

American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias®, Vol. 13, No. 6, 291-295 (1998)

 

Sensory stimulation in dementia

Esme Moniz-Cook and Michael Bird

BMJ 2003;326(7390):661 (22 March), doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7390.661

 

The effect of sensory stimulation activities on the psychological well being of patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease

Janet M. Witucki and Renee Samples Twibell

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 1997; 12; 10. DOI: 10.1177/153331759701200103

 

Sensory stimulation in dementia

Esme Moniz-Cook and Michael Bird

BMJ 2003;326(7390):661 (22 March), doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7390.661

 

The effect of sensory stimulation activities on the psychological well being of patients witn advanced Alzheimer’s disease

Janet M. Witucki and Renee Samples Twibell

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 1997; 12; 10. DOI: 10.1177/153331759701200103

 

Effects of short-term transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on memory and affective behaviour in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease

E. J. A. Scherdera, A. Boumab and A. M. Steen

Behavioural Brain Research Volume 67, Issue 2, March 1995, Pages 211-219

 

Effects of peripheral tactile nerve stimulation on affective behavior of patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease

Erik Scherder, PhD Anke Bouma, PhD

American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, Vol. 13, No. 2, 61-69 (1998)

 

Cerebral Metabolic Response to Passive Audiovisual Stimulation in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Volunteers Assessed by PET

Pietro Pietrini, Gene E. Alexander, Maura L. Furey, Alessio Darn, Marc J. Mentis, Barry Horwitz, Mario Guazzehhi, Mark B. Schapiro, and Stanley I. Rapoport

The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Vol. 41 No. 4 575-583 © 2000

 

Aversive gustatory stimulation activates limbic circuits in humans

David H. Zald, Joel T. Lee Kevin, W. Fluegel, and Jos&#233 V. Pardo

Brain (1998), 121, 1143–1154

 

Suprachiasmatic nucleus in aging, Alzheimer’s disease, transsexuality and Prader-Willi syndrom

Swaab, Roozendaal, Ravid, Velis, Gooren and Williams

Progress in Brain Research, Vol 72 Chapter 26, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987

 


Alternative Therapy

Aromatherapy

 

Aroma therapy for dementia (Review)

Holt FE, Birks TPH, Thorgrimsen LM, Spector AE, Wiles A, Orrell M

The Cochrane Collaberation

 

Aromatherapy for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Professor Elaine Perry

The Journal of Quality Research in Dementia, Issue 3

 

Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa.

Ballard CG, O’Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;63(7):553-8.

 

Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: a cross-over randomized trial.

Lin PW, Chan WC, Ng BF, Lam LC.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 May;22(5):405-10.

 

[The effect of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia]article in Korean

Lee SY.

Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2005 Apr;35(2):303-12.

 

A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia.

Snow LA, Hovanec L, Brandt J.

J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Jun;10(3):431-7.

 

Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial

S Akhondzadeh, M Noroozian, M Mohammadi, S Ohadinia, A H Jamshidi, M Khani

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003;74:863-866

 

Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study

Clive Holmes, Vivienne Hopkins, Christine Hensford, Vanessa MacLaughlin, David Wilkinson, Henry Rosenvinge

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Volume 17 Issue 4, Pages 305 – 308

 

Can aromatherapy promote sleep in elderly hospitalized patients?

F.E.A. Connell, MB BS; G. Tan, MB BCH, MRCP; I. Gupta, MB BS, MRCP; P Gompertz, MD, FRCP; Professor G. C. J. Bennett, MB, FRCP; J. L. Herzog, BSC, MB BS MPHIL, FRCPSYCH.

Geriatrics TodayJournal of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. 2001; vol. 4(4), pp. 191-195.

 

Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma

Mark Moss , and Lorraine Oliver

Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology June 2012 vol. 2 no. 3 103-113

 

Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Jimbo D1, Kimura Y, Taniguchi M, Inoue M, Urakami K.

Psychogeriatrics. 2009 Dec;9(4):173-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2009.00299.x.

 

Alternative Therapy

Art Therapy

A creative look at dementia

Karen Gram

Vancouver Sun , Wednesday, May 28, 2008

 

Alternative Therapy

Reminiscence Therapy

 

Effects of reminiscence group in elderly people with Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia in a community setting

Martin Croucher

Geriatrics and Gerontology International, Volume 7, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 167-173(7)

 

Memories of the Past Stirred by Dreamy Melodies

By Angela Lunde

The Epoch Times; Mar 19, 2008

 

Reminiscence therapy for dementia

Bob Woods, Aimee E Spector, Catherine A Jones, Martin Orrell, Stephen P Davies

The Cochrane Library

RT involves the discussion of past activities, events and experiences, with another person or group of people. This is often assisted by aids such as videos, pictures, archives and life story books. Four randomized controlled trials suitable for analysis were found. Several were very small studies, or were of relatively low quality, and each examined different types of reminiscence work. Taking studies together, some significant results were identified: cognition and mood improved 4 to 6 weeks after the treatment, care-givers participating with their relative with dementia in a reminiscence group reported lower strain, and people with dementia were reported to show some indications of improved functional ability. No harmful effects were identified on the outcome measures reported.

 

Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Nicholas R. Simmons-Stern, Andrew E. Budson, and Brandon A. Ally

Journal of Neuropsychologia.2010.04.033

 


Alternative Therapy

Doll Therapy

A pilot study on the use of dolls for people with dementia

1. Lorna Mackenzie, Ian Andrew James, Rachel Morse, Elizabeta Mukaetova-Ladinska’ F. Katharina Reichelt

Age and Aging. Volume35, Issue 4, pp441-444.

 

Using dolls to alter behaviour in patients with dementia

Jenny Ellingford, BSc; Ian James, PhD, MSc, BSc, C.Psychol; Lorna Mackenzie, RMN; Lisa Marsland, BSc, MSc

Nursing Times, VOL: 103, ISSUE: 5, PAGE NO: 36-37

 

 

Tamura, Toshiyo & Nakajima, K & Nambu, M & Nakamura, K & Yonemitsu, S & Itoh, A & Higashi, Yasuo & Fujimoto, Takahiro & Uno, H. (2001). Baby dolls as therapeutic tools for severe dementia patients. Gerontechnology. 1. 10.4017/gt.2001.01.02.004.00.

Article


Alternative Therapy

Music Therapy

The Effect of Reminiscence Music Therapy Sessions on Changes in Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Persons with Dementia

Sato Ashida, MM, MT-BC

Journal of Music Therapy Article: pp. 170-182 | Abstract Volume 37, Issue 3 (August 2000)

 

Music Therapy in Moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer’s Type

H.B. Svansdottir and J. Snaedal: Geriatric Department, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland

International Psychogeriatrics | &#169 2006 International Psychogeriatric Association

 

The Effect of Background Stimulative Music on Behavior in Alzheimer’s Patients

Naomi Ziv, PhD, Amit Granot, BA, Sharon Hai, BA, Ayelet Dassa, MA, and Iris Haimov, PhD

Journal of Music Therapy Article: pp. 183-195 | Abstract Volume 44, Issue 4 (December 2000)

 

Quiet Music: An Intervention for Mealtime Agitation

Ann Denney

Journal of Gerontological Nursing Vol. 23 No. 7 July 1997

 

Relaxing music at mealtime in nursing homes: effects on agitated patients with dementia

Sandee Lynn Hicks-Moore, MN, RN

Journal of Gerontological Nursing Vol. 31 No. 12 December 2005

 

The Impact of Music Therapy on Language Functioning in Dementia

Melissa Brotons, PhD, MT-BC and Susan M. Koger, PhD

Journal of Music Therapy Article: pp. 183-195 Volume 37, Issue 3 (August 2000)

Relaxing music at mealtime in nursing homes: effects on agitated patients with dementia

Sandee Lynn Hicks-Moore, MN, RN

Age Ageing. 2003 Jul;32(4):407-14

 

Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial.

Barnett A1, Smith B, Lord SR, Williams M, Baumand A.

Age Ageing. 2003 Jul;32(4):407-14(August 2000)

Memories of the Past Stirred by Dreamy Melodies

By Angela Lunde

The Epoch Times; Mar 19, 2008

 

Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Nicholas R. Simmons-Stern, Andrew E. Budson, and Brandon A. Ally

Journal of Neuropsychologia.2010.04.033

 


Quality of Life

Not knowing where I am doesn’t mean I don’t know what I like: cognitive impairment and quality of life responses in elderly people

Caroline Godlove Mozley, Peter Huxley, Caroline Sutcliffe, Heather Bagley, Alistair Burns, David Challis, Lis Cordingley

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;14:776-783

 

Sensory stimulation in dementia

Esme Moniz-Cook and Michael Bird

BMJ 2003;326(7390):661 (22 March), doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7390.661

 

Environment and other determinants of well being in older people

M Lawton

The Gerontologist. 1983; 23(4), 349-356

 

Psychological well being in the aged

Lawton M, Kleban M, DiCarlo E

Research on Aging. 1984; 6(1), 67-97

 

Exercise as therapy for the Alzheimer’s patient and caregiver: Aggressive action in the face of anaggressive disease

Merry Gllbert McArthur

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 1988; 3; 36

Delaying or Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease

Relation between smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: The Rotterdam Study

C. Reitz, MD, PhD, T. den Heijer, MD, PhD, C. van Duijn, PhD, A. Hofman, MD, PhD and M.M.B. Breteler, MD, PhD

NEUROLOGY 2007;69:998-1005
© 2007

 

Exercise Is Associated with Reduced Risk for Incident Dementia among Persons 65 Years of Age and Older

Eric B. Larson, MD, MPH; Li Wang, MS; James D. Bowen, MD; Wayne C. McCormick, MD, MPH; Linda Teri, PhD; Paul Crane, MD, MPH; and Walter Kukull, PhD

Annals of Internal Medicine; 17 January 2006 | Volume 144 Issue 2 | Pages 73-81

 

Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease

Nicola T. Lautenschlager, MD; Kay L. Cox, PhD; Leon Flicker, MBBS, PhD; Jonathan K. Foster, DPhil; Frank M. van Bockxmeer, PhD; Jianguo Xiao, MD, PhD; Kathryn R. Greenop, PhD; Osvaldo P. Almeida, MD, PhD

JAMA. 2008;300(9):1027-1037.

 

Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia
in the Elderly

Joe Verghese, M.D., Richard B. Lipton, M.D., Mindy J. Katz, M.P.H., Charles B. Hall, Ph.D., Carol A. Derby, Ph.D., Gail Kuslansky, Ph.D., Anne F. Ambrose, M.D., Martin Sliwinski, Ph.D., and Herman Buschke, M.D.

N Engl J Med 2003;348:2508-16.

 

Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment

R. S. Wilson, PhD, J. A. Schneider, MD, P. A. Boyle, PhD, S. E. Arnold, MD, Y. Tang, PhD and D. A. Bennett, MD

NEUROLOGY 2007;68:2085-2092

 

Moderate consumption of Cabernet Sauvignon attenuates Aß neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Jun Wang, Lap Ho,, Zhong Zhao, Ilana Seror, Nelson Humala, Dara L. Dickstein, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, Susan S. Percival, Stephen T. Talcott and Giulio Maria Pasinetti

The FASEB Journal. 2006;20:2313-2320.

 

Resveratrol Promotes Clearance of Alzheimer’s Disease Amyloid-{beta} Peptides*

Philippe Marambaud1, Haitian Zhao, and Peter Davies

J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 280, Issue 45, 37377-37382, November 11, 2005

 

Dietary patterns and risk of dementia

P. Barberger-Gateau, PhD, C. Raffaitin, MD, L. Letenneur, PhD, C. Berr, PhD, C. Tzourio, PhD, J. F. Dartigues, PhD and A. Alpérovitch, PhD

NEUROLOGY 2007;69:1921-1930

 

Conclusion of the study: “Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, and omega-3 rich oils may decrease the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease, especially among ApoE {varepsilon}4 noncarriers.”

Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Kame Project

Qi Dai, MD, PhD; Amy R. Borenstein, PhD; Yougui Wu, PhD; James C. Jackson, PsyD; Eric B. Larson, MD, MPH

The American Journal of Medicine; Volume 119, Issue 9, Pages 751-759 (September 2006)

 

Fruit and vegetable juices may play an important role in delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly among those who are at high risk for the disease.

A role for docosahexaenoic acid–derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer disease

Walter J. Lukiw, Jian-Guo Cui, Victor L. Marcheselli, Merete Bodker, Anja Botkjaer, Katherine Gotlinger, Charles N. Serhan, and Nicolas G. Bazan

The Journal of Clinical Investigation | Volume 115 | Number 10 | October 2005

 

Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease with high folate intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

María M. Corrada, Claudia H. Kawasab, Judith Hallfrischc, Denis Mullerd, Ron Brookmeyere

Alzheimer’s and Dementia |Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-18 (July 2005)

 

Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Disease in Users
of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements

Peter P. Zandi, PhD; James C. Anthony, PhD; Ara S. Khachaturian, PhD; Stephanie V. Stone, PhD;Deborah Gustafson, PhD; JoAnn T. Tschanz, PhD; Maria C. Norton, PhD; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer, PhD; John C. S. Breitner, MD

ARCH NEUROL/VOL 61, JAN 2004

 

“Conclusion of study: Use of vitamin E and vitamin C supplements in combination is associated with reduced prevalence and incidence of AD. Antioxidant supplements merit further study as agents for the primary prevention of AD.”

Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease with high folate intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

María M. Corrada, Claudia H. Kawasab, Judith Hallfrischc, Denis Mullerd, Ron Brookmeyere

Alzheimer’s and Dementia |Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-18 (July 2005)

 

Dietary Supplementation with Apple Juice Decreases Endogenous Amyloid-%u03B2 Levels in Murine Brain.

Amy Chan and Thomas B. Shea.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease |16:1 (January 2009)

 

Association of Lifetime Cognitive Engagement and Low &#946-Amyloid Deposition

Susan M. Landau, PhD; Shawn M. Marks, BS; Elizabeth C. Mormino, PhD; Gil D. Rabinovici, MD; Hwamee Oh, PhD; James P. O’Neil, PhD; Robert S. Wilson, PhD; William J. Jagust, MD

Arch Neurol. 2012;69(5):623-629. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.2748

 

Effect of Vitamin E and Memantine on Functional Decline in Alzheimer Disease

Maurice W. Dysken, MD; Mary Sano, PhD; et.al.

JAMA. 2014;311(1):33-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282834

 

The Neural Architecture of Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories

Petr Janata

Oxford Journals, Life Sciences & Medicine,Cerebral Cortex, Volume 19, Issue 11, Pp. 2579-2594

 

Accupuncture and Herbal Medicine

Effect of Toki-Shakuyaku-San on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease,

Teruyuki Matsuoka, Jin Narumoto, Keisuke Shibata, et al

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 245091, 5 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/245091

 

Exercise & Physical Therapy

Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial.

Barnett A1, Smith B, Lord SR, Williams M, Baumand A.

Age Ageing. 2003 Jul;32(4):407-14(August 2000)